ELECTRICITY

A Comprehensive Guide to the Electric Energy Market in Poland
Electricity: How It Works and Who Uses It

Electricity is one of the most important commodities in the modern market, traded on competitive terms. Like other products, electricity is produced by generators, bought by intermediaries, and then sold to individual customers, companies, and institutions. Delivering electricity from its producer to the end-user requires advanced infrastructure and complex logistical operations.

Electricity Producers
Electricity production in Poland is carried out by a variety of sources, including both conventional system power plants and modern renewable energy sources.

  • System Power Plants: Poland has 19 system power plants that account for 75% of the country’s electricity production. These plants burn lignite and hard coal. The largest ones include power plants in Bełchatów, Opole, Turów, Połaniec, Kozienice, Rybnik, and Dolna Odra.
  • Cogeneration Plants (CHP): Cogeneration plants produce both electricity and heat simultaneously, increasing energy efficiency. Poland has over 50 cogeneration plants, primarily located in large urban areas such as the Żerań Cogeneration Plant in Warsaw and Kogeneracja in Wrocław. Industrial cogeneration plants are also present in larger industrial facilities.
  • Renewable Energy Sources (RES): Poland is also developing renewable energy, including hydropower plants, wind farms, biomass, biogas installations, and photovoltaic systems. These energy sources help reduce CO2 emissions and support sustainable development.

Energy Trading Companies
Electricity trading in Poland is conducted through trading companies that purchase energy from producers and sell it to end-users. Contract terms, including prices, are individually negotiated between the seller and the buyer, allowing the offer to be tailored to the specific needs of customers.

Energy Transporters
Efficient transportation of electricity is crucial due to transmission losses, which are inversely proportional to transmission voltage. Therefore, energy is transported via lines with the highest possible voltage.

  • Transmission Networks: Lines with a voltage of 220 kV and 400 kV, managed by Polskie Sieci Elektroenergetyczne S.A., transport energy directly from power plants to Main Supply Points (GPZ).
  • Distribution Networks: Lines with a voltage from 230 V to 110 kV, managed by energy distributors, transport energy from GPZs to end customers. Distribution System Operators (DSOs) manage these networks. In Warsaw, this function is performed by RWE Operator, and in other regions of the country, by PGE, Tauron, Enea, and Energa.

Electricity Customers
The Polish electricity market is liberalized, meaning consumers can choose from various energy suppliers. The main groups of customers include:

  • Households: Individual consumers use electricity for everyday needs such as lighting, heating, cooking, and electronics operation.
  • Industry and Enterprises: Large energy consumers use it in production processes and machine operation.
  • Public and Educational Institutions: Schools, universities, hospitals, and offices use energy to power buildings and equipment.
  • Services: Service companies, such as banks, shops, and offices, use energy to conduct their business.
  • Agriculture: Farms use energy for irrigation, ventilation, and powering equipment.
  • Other Industries: Mining, chemical, metallurgical, and other sectors.

Market Liberalization
The liberalization of the electricity market in Poland promotes competitive prices and trade offers. Customers can choose energy suppliers, allowing them to find more attractive contract terms and sustainable energy sources.

Contact Us
Feel free to contact us to learn more about the electricity market in Poland and our services. Together, we can find the best energy solutions for your company or home, supporting efficient and sustainable use of electricity.

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